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Tuesday 19th September 2017

 
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NURSING HISTORY

 

HISTORY OF NURSING NIGERIA
HISTORY OF NURSING AND MIDWIFERY
THE EMERGENCE OF PROFESSIONALISM IN NURSING EDUCATION

Nurses, according to the ICN Code of Ethics as reviewed in 2005, have four fundamental responsibilities: to promote health, to prevent illness, to restore health and to alleviate suffering. The need for nursing is universal. Inherent in nursing is respect for human rights, including cultural rights, the right to life and choice, to dignity and to be treated with respect. Nursing care is respectful of and unrestricted by considerations of age, colour, creed, culture, disability or illness, gender, sexual orientation, nationality, politics, race or social status. Nurses render health services to the individual, the family and the community and coordinate their services with those of related groups. Before 1981, nursing was adjudged a vocation in Nigeria, but by virtue of the Industrial Arbitration Panel (IAP) award of 1981, nursing got the recognition of a full-fledged profession.

The detailed history of a profession that combines scientific principles, technical skills and personal comparison canít be precisely relayed but records hold that Nursing came to limelight in 1854 when the Mother of Professional Nursing, Florence Nightingale started the battlefield with other 38 nurses and cared for the sick and injured men during the Crimean war in England. Her persistence dedicated service, day & night, experiences paid off by making her famous and recognized by lady with the lamp. Her metric service resulted in complete change in Nursing profession and lead to the beginning of professional nursing.

Though, Nursing in the early days was primarily a family matter with mothers caring for their own families or neighbors assisting each other.

In 1880, the status of Nursing was greatly improved and many women including religious orders were now involved in patient care. During the era, there are many school of nursing for trained nurses throughout Europe with the first school established in 1836 by Parker Theoder Fliedner in his parisn in Kavesworth Germany through the influence of Florence Nightingale the kareworth school.

In 1882, came the first movement for the recognition and registration of nurses. International body were formed emirgare Royal British Nurses Council of Nurses established in 1893 and international council of nurses was established with headquaters in Geneva, Switzerland and branches all over the world. Also, in 1926, the British College of Nurses was founded. The first African-American graduate nurse, Mary E. Mahoney, who promoted integration & better working condition, for black patients and healthcare workers.

Though, nursing came to Nigeria through the British Colonial masters. They provided services and medical care for wounded soldiers at the furtherworth Hospital. Later the first nursing home in Nigeria in Jericho, Ibadan by the government of the British Colonial masters.

Later on missionaries and their wives came to supplement government effort by setting up Mission homes, Dispensaries e.t.c. and commence the training of Nurses in Nigeria, though language barrier there was no formal training but on the Job acquisition skills and practical aspect are been rendered by nursing surger.

The regional government in Nigeria began the training of nurses by settings individual regional standard. In 1949, the School of Nursing, Eleyele was established to facilitate the training of nurses, later in 1952, the University College Hospital Ibadan started the training of nurses in a higher standard. In 1949, the Nursing Council of Nigeria was established to complement the efforts of the various training bodies and creating standards for Nurses.

By 1965, adeportment of Nursing was established in the University of Ibadan to commence a degree programme in Nigeria. Later on, University of Ife and University of Nigeria, Enugu also started degree in 1973. At present all the states on Nigeria has one or more School of Nursing, Midwifery and kinds of Post Basic schools. More degree awarding institutions has been granted the license to produce degree holder in Nursing. Among them are Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria; University of Calabar, Calabar; Ladoke Akintola University (LAUTECH), Ogbomoso. Also private University, Babcock University, disan Remo; Leadcity University; Madonna University among others started degree in Nursing.

Nurses, according to the ICN Code of Ethics as reviewed in 2005, have four fundamental responsibilities: to promote health, to prevent illness, to restore health and to alleviate suffering. The need for nursing is universal. Inherent in nursing is respect for human rights, including cultural rights, the right to life and choice, to dignity and to be treated with respect.

Nursing care is respectful of and unrestricted by considerations of age, colour, creed, culture, disability or illness, gender, sexual orientation, nationality, politics, race or social status.

Nurses render health services to the individual, the family and the community and coordinate their services with those of related groups.

Before 1981, nursing was adjudged a vocation in Nigeria, but by virtue of the Industrial Arbitration Panel (IAP) award of 1981, nursing got the recognition of a full-fledged profession.

Arising from that pronouncement, the association has been working with the N&MCN to take nursing to the highest pedestral of professionalism, and one of the ways is through nursing education reforms.

The Nursing and Midwifery Council of Nigeria is a parastatal of the Federal Government of Nigeria established by Decree 89 of 1979 of the Federal Republic of Nigeria and amended by Decrees No. 54 of 1988, No. 18 of 1989 and No. 83 of 1992. The Council is the only regulatory body for all cadres of Nurses and Midwives in Nigeria. VISION FOR NURSING IN NIGERIA

We would like to see a Nursing and Midwifery Council of Nigeria that is the flagship of institutions of its kind in the whole world, with Nursing and Midwifery Education and Practice assuming their rightful place in Nigeria, professional ethics and etiquette adequately maintained, and the quality of Nursing Care to Clients and Patients properly guaranteed. It is also our desire that interdisciplinary collaboration with all stakeholders in the health profession be given the highest priority it deserves.

It is the only legal, administrative, corporate and statutory body charged with the performance of specific functions on behalf of the Federal Government of Nigeria in order to ensure the delivery of safe and effective Nursing and Midwifery care to the public through quality Education and best practices. The Council is mandated by Law to regulate the standards of Nursing and Midwifery Education and Practice in Nigeria and to review such Standards from time to time to meet the changing needs of the society.

The Council is the only Professional Regulatory Body for all cadres of Nurses and Midwives in Nigeria. It is the only Legal and Administrative Corporate and Statutory Body charged with the performance of specific functions for Nurses and Midwives on behalf of the Federal Government of Nigeria. The Council has its headquaters in Lagos, with Zonal Offices in Kaduna, Bauchi, Enugu, PortHarcourt and Abuja.

The Council also works in partnership and collaboration with non-governmental organisation such as WHO, UNICEF, Ipas, Netherlands Leprosy Relief Organisation, JSI/MMIS-Nigeria, GHAIN. PATHS, etc, in developing and implementing various health programmes, projects, workshops/seminar etc., aimed at uplifting the standards of Nursing and Midwifery Education and Practice in the country.

The Council is headed by a Secretary General/Registrar and is assisted by other professionals and non-professional staff. They are responsible to a Board headed by a Chairman with members drawn from various institutions and zones in the country.

The University college hospital was founded in 1948. It was founded ďto realize that to raise the standard of nursing to the level demanded by the new medical school and to meet the increasing scientific knowledge and the ever changing needs of the community, candidate with broad educational background, intellectual ability, technical dexterity and with emotional stability are needed to meet the challenge not only of the present but of the futureĒ (Prett K.A 1968).

The then school of nursing (UCH) started the training of nursing (1955) which was of such high quality after a well planned and organized programme was implemented. Later in 1956, two other training hospitals, the General Hospital Lagos and St. Lukes Hospital, Anua with UCH were acknowledged by General Nursing Council (GNS) for England and Wales for the award of the SRN certificate and was given 18months and 12months remission of training respectively for anyone trained in either of these Hospitals who wishes to proceed to train for the SRN register in the United Kingdom.

Later in 1962, the Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH) commenced its Nursing training programme, building where the older sister but Ibadan had planned but without losing its unique individual. Their programme was also internationally acclaimed for its excellence. Its products were accepted by GNC of England and Wales as meriting its SRN CERTIFICATE.

In 1963, the Nursing Council of Nigeria was aware of the need to avail the same high standard of education to all students of Nursing set up a Standard of Nurse Training Committee with responsibility to develop a National Nurse Training Programme which would be of an Internationally acceptable standard.

The tempo for the development of Nursing Education to a professional level was gathering momentum. It had so because of:

  • Changes in the Socio-Cultural Environment
  • Increase and growing sense of responsibilities of nurses to recipients of care
  • The new Clientele in the Health Industry
  • The new concept of man and her relationship to the world around him
  • The rise in Literacy level
  • The greater awareness of individualís rights and obligations of human worth of dignity
  • Advances in Medical Science and Technology
  • The Complexity of knowledge and skills required to give safe and hazard free nursing care to consumers of healthcare services.

Nursing in Nigeria operates within the ambit of the code of professional conduct for Nurses and Midwives as put together by the Nursing and Midwifery Council of Nigeria. The code of conduct operates seven (7) principal elements that outline the standard of ethnical conduct viz.

  • The professional Nurse
  • The professional Nurse and the Health Care consumer
  • The professional Nurse and the Nursing profession
  • The professional Nurse and Nursing practice
  • The professional Nurse and Professional colleagues
  • The professional Nurse and the Public
  • The professional Nurse and the global health organization.

 
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